Examples of what children should be able to do, in relation to each (boxed) Programme of Study statement

read, write and interpret mathematical statements involving addition (+), subtraction (–) and equals (=) signs

Use the vocabulary add, subtract, minus, equals, is the same value as, total, more than, fewer/less than.

Explain that things on both sides of the equals sign have the same value

Know that the ‘total’ can be presented on either side of the equals sign

Complete ‘empty box’ number sentences

represent and use number bonds and related subtraction facts within 20

I’m thinking of a number. I’ve subtracted 6 and the answer is 8. What number was I thinking of? Explain how you know.

I’m thinking of a number. I’ve added 7 and the answer is 18. What number was I thinking of? Explain how you know.

I know that 6 and 4 is 10. How can I find 7 + 4? How could you work it out?

add and subtract one-digit and two-digit numbers to 20, including zero

What is 37 subtract 10? How did you work that out? How could you show that using cubes/a number line/a 100-square? What would 37 subtract 20 be?

Make up some difference questions with the answer 5. Can you show how to solve them using counters? Can you show how to find the answer on a number line?

solve one-step problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects and pictorial representations, and missing number problems such as 7 = ? – 9.

Make up some additions with the answer 15. Try to put them in different ways, like this: 10 + 5 = 15. The total of 10 and 5 is 15. 10 and 5 more makes 15.

How many ways can you show me that 9 subtract 3 is 6?

Make up some subtractions with the answer 5. Try to put them in different ways, like this: 11 – 6 = 5. The difference between 6 and 11 is 5.