Teachers should use every relevant subject to develop pupils’ mathematical fluency. Confidence in numeracy and other mathematical skills is a precondition of success across the national curriculum.
(National Curriculum in England Framework Document, September 2013, p10)
Connections within Mathematics
Making connections to this topic in adjacent year groups
solve one-step problems involving multiplication and division, by calculating the answer using concrete objects, pictorial representations and arrays with the support of a teacher.
Non statutory guidance:
Through grouping and sharing small quantities, pupils begin to understand: multiplication and division; doubling numbers and quantities; and finding simple fractions of objects, numbers and quantities.
They make connections between arrays, number patterns, and counting in twos, fives and tens.
recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 3,4 and 8 times tables.
write and calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division using the multiplication tables that they know, including for two-digit numbers times one-digit numbers, using mental and progressing to formal written methods.
solve problems, including missing number problems, involving multiplication and division, including integer scaling problems and correspondence problems in which n objects are connected to m objects.
Pupils continue to practise their mental recall of multiplication tables when they are calculating mathematical statements in order to improve fluency. Through doubling, they connect the 2, 4 and 8 multiplication tables.
Pupils develop efficient mental methods, for example, using commutativity (e.g. 4 x 12 x 5 = 4 x 5 x 12= 20 x 12 = 240) and multiplication and division facts (e.g. using 3 x 2 = 6, 6 ÷ 3 = 2 and 2 = 6 ÷3) to derive related facts (30 x 2 = 60, 60 ÷ 3 = 20 and 20 = 60 ÷ 3).
Pupils develop reliable written methods for multiplication and division, starting with calculations of two-digit numbers by one-digit numbers and progressing to the formal written methods of short multiplication and division.
Pupils solve simple problems in contexts, deciding which of the four operations to use and why, including measuring and scaling contexts, and correspondence problems in which m objects are connected to n objects (e.g. 3 hats and 4 coats, how many different outfits?; 12 sweets shared equally between 4 children; 4 cakes shared equally between 8 children).
Cross-curricular and real life connections
Learners will encounter multiplication and division in:
Money – shopping: finding quantities in multiple purchases, sales prices, sharing costs.
Measurement - calculating area and perimeter, finding journey distances, reading and calculating scales, adjusting recipe quantities.
Data – interpreting and evaluating data, calculating amounts from pie charts and pictograms.