- add and subtract numbers mentally, including:
- add and subtract numbers with up to three digits, using formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction
- estimate the answer to a calculation and use inverse operations to check answers
- solve problems, including missing number problems, using number facts, place value, and more complex addition and subtraction.
Pupils practise solving varied addition and subtraction questions. For mental calculations with two-digit numbers, the answers could exceed 100.
Pupils use their understanding of place value and partitioning, and practise using column addition and subtraction with increasingly large numbers up to three digits to become fluent (see Mathematics Apendix 1).