Teachers should use every relevant subject to develop pupils’ mathematical fluency. Confidence in numeracy and other mathematical skills is a precondition of success across the national curriculum.

Teachers should develop pupils’ numeracy and mathematical reasoning in all subjects so that they understand and appreciate the importance of mathematics.

*– National Curriculum in England Framework Document, September 2013, p10*

### Connections within Mathematics

#### Making connections to other topics within this year group

When focusing on aspects of ‘Number and Place Value’ in Year 3, in particular when counting in steps of 4, 8, 50 and 100, children will have the opportunity to link with work on multiplication and division.

When interpreting and presenting data using bar charts, pictograms and tables in Year 3, children can use their knowledge of multiplication facts when creating and reading scales and data sets.

#### Making connections to this topic in adjacent year groups

**Year 2**

- recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers
- calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division within the multiplication tables and write them using the multiplication (×), division (÷) and equals (=) signs
- show that multiplication of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and division of one number by another cannot
- solve problems involving multiplication and division, using materials, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods, and multiplication and division facts, including problems in contexts.

Non-Statutory Guidance

Pupils use a variety of language to describe multiplication and division.

Pupils are introduced to the multiplication tables. They practise to become fluent in the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables and connect them to each other. They connect the 10 multiplication table to place value, and the 5 multiplication table to the divisions on the clock face. They begin to use other multiplication tables and recall multiplication facts, including using related division facts to perform written and mental calculations.

Pupils work with a range of materials and contexts in which multiplication and division relate to grouping and sharing discrete and continuous quantities, to arrays and to repeated addition. They begin to relate these to fractions and measures (for example, 40 ÷ 2 = 20, 20 is a half of 40). They use commutativity and inverse relations to develop multiplicative reasoning (for example, 4 × 5 = 20 and 20 ÷ 5 = 4).

**Year 4**

- recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 × 12
- use place value, known and derived facts to multiply and divide mentally, including: multiplying by 0 and 1; dividing by 1; multiplying together three numbers
- recognise and use factor pairs and commutativity in mental calculations
- multiply two-digit and three-digit numbers by a one-digit number using formal written layout
- solve problems involving multiplying and adding, including using the distributive law to multiply two digit numbers by one digit, integer scaling problems and harder correspondence problems such as n objects are connected to m objects.

Non-Statutory Guidance

Pupils continue to practise recalling and using multiplication tables and related division facts to aid fluency.

Pupils practise mental methods and extend this to three-digit numbers to derive facts, (for example 600 ÷ 3 = 200 can be derived from 2 x 3 = 6).

Pupils practise to become fluent in the formal written method of short multiplication and short division with exact answers (see Mathematics Appendix 1).

Pupils write statements about the equality of expressions (for example, use the distributive law 39 × 7 = 30 × 7 + 9 × 7 and associative law (2 × 3) × 4 = 2 × (3 × 4)). They combine their knowledge of number facts and rules of arithmetic to solve mental and written calculations for example, 2 x 6 x 5 = 10 x 6 = 60.

Pupils solve two-step problems in contexts, choosing the appropriate operation, working with increasingly harder numbers. This should include correspondence questions such as the numbers of choices of a meal on a menu, or three cakes shared equally between 10 children.

### Cross-curricular and real life connections

Learners will encounter aspects of multiplication and division when working on area, relating to arrays. Problem solving work involving finding all possibilities and combinations also draws on knowledge of multiplication tables facts.

Fractions work within other curriculum areas and in real life links naturally to multiplication and division work.

The notion of equal groups can emerge in many different activities and contexts, e.g. when packing boxes, purchasing quantities of items for several people etc.