- recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 3, 4 and 8 multiplication tables
- write and calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division using the multiplication tables that they know, including for two-digit numbers times one-digit numbers, using mental and progressing to formal written methods
- solve problems, including missing number problems, involving multiplication and division, including positive integer scaling problems and correspondence problems in which n objects are connected to m objects.
Pupils continue to practise their mental recall of multiplication tables when they are calculating mathematical statements in order to improve fluency. Through doubling, they connect the 2, 4 and 8 multiplication tables.
Pupils develop efficient mental methods, for example, using commutativity and associativity (for example,4 × 12 × 5 = 4 × 5 × 12 = 20 × 12 = 240) and multiplication and division facts(for example, using 3 × 2 = 6, 6 ÷ 3 = 2 and 2 = 6 ÷ 3) to derive related facts(for example,30 × 2 = 60, 60 ÷ 3 = 20 and 20 = 60 ÷ 3).
Pupils develop reliable written methods for multiplication and division, starting with calculations of two - digit numbers by one - digit numbers and progressing to the formal written methods of short multiplication and division.
Pupils solve simple problems in contexts, deciding which of the four operations to use and why. These include measuring and scaling contexts, (for example, four times ashigh, eight times as long etc.) and correspondence problems in which m objects are connected to n objects (for example, 3 hats and 4 coats, how many different outfits?; 12 sweets shared equally between 4 children; 4 cakes shared equally between 8 children).